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Conversion Factors (miscellaneous)
Geometric Units Nuclear Magneton Energy Equivalence I
SI Defined Units (Inverse) Fine Structure Constant Energy Equivalence II
SI Derived Units Rydberg Constant Energy Equivalence III
SI Accepted Units Physical Constants Energy Equivalence IV
Geometric Constants Chemical Constants Energy Conversion Factors I
Earth Constants Boltzmann Constant Energy Conversion Factors II
Universal Constants Physicochemical Constants Energy Conversion Factors III
Planck Constants Electron Constants Energy Conversion Factors IV
Electromagnetic Constants Proton Constants Atomic Units
Bohr Magneton Neutron Constants  

Geometric Units

SI Defined Units
QuantityName Symbol
length (distance)meterm
masskilogram kg
timeseconds
temperatureKelvinK
currentAmpereA
quantitymolemol
luminosity candelacd

SI Derived Units
QuantityNameSymbolUnits
frequency HertzHzm-1
velocity--m s-1
acceleration --m s-2
forceNewtonNkg m s-2
pressure (stress)PascalPaN m-2 = kg m-1 s-2
energy (work, heat)JouleJN m = kg m2 s-2
momentum (impulse)--N s = kg m s-1
powerWattWJ s -1 = kg m2 s-3
electric chargeCoulombCA s
electric potential (emf)VoltVJ C-1 = W A -1 = kg m2 s-3 A-1
resistanceOhmWV A-1 = kg m2 s-3 A-2
conductanceSiemensSA V-1 = W-1 = kg-1 m-2 s3 A2
magnetic fluxWeberWbV s = kg m2 s-2 A -1
inductanceHenryHWb A-1 = kg m2 s-2 A-2
capacitanceFaradFC V-1 = kg-1 m-2 s4 A2
electric field strength--V m-1 = N C-1
electric displacement- -C m-2
magnetic field strength--A m-1
magnetic flux densityTeslaTWb m-2 = N A-1 m-1 = kg s-2 A-1
plane angleradianrad2p (circle)
solid angle steradiansr4p (sphere)
luminous fluxlumenlmcd sr
illuminanceluxlxlm m-2

SI Accepted Units
QuantityNameSymbolUnits
lengthÅ ngstromÅ, å1 a = 10-10 m
volumeLiterL, l1 L = 10-3 m3
massmetric tont1 t = 1000 kg
pressurebarbar1 bar = 105 Pa = 105 N m-2
timeminutemin1 min = 60 sec
timehourh1 h = 60 min = 3600 sec
timedayd1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s
plane angledegreeo1o = (p/180) rad
plane angleminute'1' = (1/60)o = (p/10 800) rad
plane anglesecond"1" = (1/60)' = (p /648 000) rad

Geometric Constants

Earth Constants
ConstantSymbolValue
Standard Atmosphereatm101 325 Pa (exact)
Standard Acceleration of Gravityga 9.806 65 m s-2 (exact)
Astronomical Unit (Earth-Sun)au1.495 978 706 91 (30) ´ 1011 m

Universal Constants
ConstantSymbolValue
Speed of Light in Vacuumc299 792 458 m s-1 (exact)
Permeability of Vacuum = 4p ´ 10-7 N/A2mo 12.566 370 614 ... N A-2
Permittivity of Vacuum = 1/moc2eo8.854 187 817 ... ´ 10-12 F m-1
Newtonian Constant of GravitationG6.672 59 (85) ´ 10-11 m3 kg -1 s-2
electron Volt (in Joules)eV1.602 177 33 (49) ´ 10 -19 J
(unified) atomic mass unit = m( 12C)/12u1.660 540 2 (10) ´ 10-27 kg

Planck Constants
ConstantSymbolValue
Planck Constanth6.626 075 5 10 (40) ´ 10-34 J s
Planck Constant = h/{e} (in electron Volts)h/{e }4.135 669 2 (12) ´ 10-15 eV s
Planck Constant = h/2ph1.054 572 66 (63) ´ 10-34 J s
Planck Constant = h/2p{e} (in electron Volts)h/{e}6.582 122 0 (20) ´ 10-16 eV s
Planck Mass = (hc/G)1/2mP 2.176 71 (14) ´ 10-8 kg
Planck Length = h/mPc = (hG/c3)1/2l P1.616 05 (10) ´ 10-35 m
Planck Time = lP/c = (hG/c5)1/2tP5.390 56 (34) ´ 10 -44 s

Electromagnetic Constants
ConstantSymbolValue
Electronic Charge Quantume1.602 177 33 (49) ´ 10-19 C
Quantized Electronic Charge = e/he/h2.417 988 36 (72) ´ 1014 A J -1
Magnetic Flux Quantum = h/2eFo2.037 834 61 (61) ´ 10-15 Wb
Josephson Frequency/Voltage Quotient = 2e/h2e /h4.835 976 7 (14) ´ 1015 Hz V-1
Quantized Hall Conductance = e2/he2/h3.874 046 14 (17) ´ 10-5 S
Quantized Hall Resistance = h/e2 = moc/2a RH25 812.805 6 (12) W

Bohr Magneton
ConstantSymbolValue
Bohr Magneton = eh/2mem B9.274 015 4 (31) ´ 10-24 J T-1
Bohr Magneton = mB/{e} (in electron Volts)mB/e5.788 382 63 (52) ´ 10-5 eV T-1
Bohr Magneton = mB /h (in Hertz)mB /h1.399 624 18 (42) ´ 1010 Hz T-1
Bohr Magneton = mB/hc (in wavenumbers)mB/hc46.686 437 (14) m-1 T-1
Bohr Magneton = mB/k (in Kelvins)mB/k0.671 709 9 (57) K T -1

Nuclear Magneton
ConstantSymbolValue
Nuclear Magneton = eh /2mpmN 5.050 786 6 (17) ´ 10-27 J T-1
Nuclear Magneton = mN/{e} (in electron Volts)mN/e3.152 451 66 (28) ´ 10-8 eV T-1
Nuclear Magneton = mN/ h (in Hertz)mN/h7.622 591 4 (23) MHz T-1
Nuclear Magneton = mN/hc (in wavenumbers)mN/hc 2.542 622 81 (77) ´ 10-2 m-2 T-1
Nuclear Magneton = mN/k (in Kelvins)mN/k3.658 246 (31) ´ 10-4 K T-1

(Inverse) Fine Structure Constant
ConstantSymbolValue
Fine Structure Constant = moce2/2ha7.297 353 08 (33) ´ 10-3
Inverse Fine Structure Constant = 2h/moce 21/a = a -1137.035 989 5 (61)

Rydberg Constant
ConstantSymbolValue
Rydberg Constant = meca2/2hR¥10 973 731.534 (13) m-1
Rydberg Constant = R¥ c (in Hertz)R¥c3.289 841 949 9 (40) ´ 1015 Hz
Rydberg Constant = R¥hc (in Joules) R¥hc2.179 874 1 (13) ´ 10-18 J
Rydberg Constant = R¥ hc/{e} (in electron Volts)R ¥hc/{e} 13.605 698 1 (40) eV

Physical Constants
ConstantSymbolValue
Bohr Radius = a/4pR ¥ao0.529 177 249 (24) ´ 10-10 m
Hartree Energy = e2/4peoao = 2R¥hcEh 4.359 748 2 (26) ´ 10-18 J
Hartree Energy = Eh/{e} (in electron Volts)Eh/{e}27.211 396 1 (81) eV
Quantum of Circulation = h/2meh/2me3.636 948 07 (33) ´ 10-4 m2 s-1
Quanta of Circulation = h/m eh/me7.273 896 14 (65) ´ 10-4 m2 s-1

Chemical Constants
ConstantSymbolValue
Avogadro's NumberN A, L6.022 136 7 (36) ´ 1023 mol-1
Atomic Mass Constant = m(12C)/12 = 1 Dalton (Da)mu1.660 540 2 (10) ´ 10-27 kg
Atomic Mass Constant = muc2/{e} (in electron Volts)mu931.494 32 (28) MeV
Faraday ConstantF96 485.309 (29) C mol -1
Molar Planck Constant = NA hNAh3.990 313 23 (36) ´ 10-10 J s mol-1
Molar Planck Constant = NAhc NAhc0.119 626 58 (11) J m mol-1
Molar Gas ConstantR8.314 510 (70) J mol-1 K-1
Molar Volume = RT/p (ideal gas at 1 atm/273.15 K)Vm22 414.10 (19) cm3 mol-1
Loschmidt Constant = NA/Vmno2.686 763 (23) ´ 1025 m-3

Boltzmann Constant
ConstantSymbolValue
Boltzmann Constant = R/NAk, kB1.380 658 (12) ´ 10-23 J K-1
Boltzmann Constant = k/{e} (in electron Volts)k/{e}8.617 385 (73) ´ 10-5 eV K-1
Boltzmann Constant = k/h (in Hertz)k/h2.083 674 (18) ´ 1010 Hz K-1
Boltzmann Constant = k/hc (in wavenumbers)k /hc69.503 87 (59) m-1 K-1

Physicochemical Constants
Constant SymbolValue
Stefan-Boltzmann Constant = (p2/60)k4/h3 c2s5.670 51 (19) ´ 10-8 m-2 K-4
First Radiation Constant = 2phc2c13.741 774 9 (22) ´ 10-16 W m2
Second Radiation Constant = hc/kc20.014 387 69 (12) m K

Electron Constants
Constant SymbolValue
Electron Massme 9.109 389 7 (54) ´ 10-31 kg
Electron Mass (in atomic mass units)m e5.485 799 03 (13) ´ 10-4 u (amu)
Electron Mass = m ec2/{e} (in electron Volts)m e0.510 999 06 (15) MeV
Electron - Proton Mass Ratio = me/mpme /mp5.446 170 13 (11) ´ 10-4
Electron Specific Charge = -e/me-e/me1.758 819 62 (53) ´ 1011 C kg-1
Electron Molar MassM(e) 5.485 799 03 (13) ´ 10-7 kg mol-1
Electron Compton Wavelength = h /mecl C(e)2.426 310 58 (22) ´ 10-12 m
Electron Compton Wavelength = lC(e)/2p = aao = a 2/4pR¥l C(e)3.861 593 23 (35) ´ 10 -13 m
Electron Classical Radius = a2/aore 2.817 940 92 (38) ´ 10-15 m
Thomson Cross Section = (8p /3)re2s e0.665 246 16 (18) ´ 10-28 m2
Electron Magnetic Momentme928.477 01 (31) ´ 10-26 J T-1
Electron Magnetic Moment = m e/mB (in Bohr magnetons)me/mB1.001 159 652 193 (10)
Electron Magnetic Moment = me/mN (in nuclear magnetons)me/mN1838.282 000 (37)
Electron Magnetic Moment Anomaly = me/mB - 1ae1.159 652 193 (10) ´ 10-3
Electron g- factor = 2(1 + ae)ge2.002 319 304 386 (20)
Electron - Proton Magnetic Moment Ratio = me/mpme/ mp658.210 688 1 (66)

Proton Constants
Constant SymbolValue
Proton Massmp1.672 623 1 (10) ´ 10-27 kg
Proton Mass (in atomic mass units)m p1.007 276 470 (12) u (amu)
Proton Mass = mpc2/{e} (in electron Volts)mp938.272 31 (28) MeV
Proton - Electron Mass Ratio = mp/me mp/me 1836.152 701 (37)
Proton Specific Charge = e/m pe/mp9.578 830 9 (29) ´ 107 C kg-1
Proton Molar MassM(p)1.007 276 470 (12) ´ 10-3 kg mol-1
Proton Compton Wavelength = h/mp clC(p)1.321 410 02 (12) ´ 10-15 m
Proton Compton Wavelength = lC(p) /2pl C(p)2.103 089 37 (19) ´ 10-16 m
Proton Magnetic Momentmp1.410 607 61 (47) ´ 10-26 J T-1
Proton Magnetic Moment = mp/mB (in Bohr magnetons)mp/mB1.521 032 202 (15) ´ 10-3
Proton Magnetic Moment = mp/mN (in nuclear magnetons)m p/mN2.792 847 386 (63)
Proton Gyromagnetic Ratio gp26 752.212 8 (81) ´ 104 s-1 T-1
Proton Gyromagnetic Ratio = gp/2pgp/2p42.577 469 (13) MHz T-1

Neutron Constants
Constant SymbolValue
Neutron Massmn 1.674 928 6 (10) ´ 10-27 kg
Neutron Mass (in atomic mass units)m n1.008 664 904 (14) u (amu)
Neutron Mass = mnc2/{e} (in electron Volts)mn939.565 63 (28) MeV
Neutron - Electron Mass Ratio = mn/me mn/me 1836.683 662 (40)
Neutron - Proton Mass Ratio = mn /mpmn/mp 1.001 378 404 (9)
Neutron Molar Mass M(n)1.008 664 904 (14) ´ 10 -3 kg mol-1
Neutron Compton Wavelength = h/mncl C(n)1.319 591 10 (12) ´ 10-15 m
Neutron Compton Wavelength = lC(n)/2plC(n) 2.100 194 45 (19) ´ 10-16 m
Neutron Magnetic Momentm n0.966 237 07 (40) ´ 10-26 J T-1
Neutron Magnetic Moment = mn/m B (in Bohr magnetons)m n/mB 1.041 875 63 (25) ´ 10-3
Neutron Magnetic Moment = mn/ mN (in nuclear magnetons) mn/mN 1.913 042 75 (45)
Neutron - Electron Magnetic Moment Ratio = mn/mem n/mB1.040 668 82 (25) ´ 10-3
Neutron - Proton Magnetic Moment Ratio = mn /mpmn/mp0.684 979 24 (16)

Energy Equivalence I
UnitsJ (Joule)kg (kilogram)
1 J (Joule) =1 J (Joule) 1.112 650 06 ´ 10-17 kg
1 kg (kilogram) =8.987 551 787 ´ 1016 J1 kg (kilogram)
1 m-1 (wavenumber) =1.986 447 5 (12) ´ 10-25 J2.210 220 9 (13) ´ 10-42 kg
1 Hz (Hertz) =6.626 075 5 (40) ´ 10-34 J7.372 503 2 (44) ´ 10 -51 kg
1 K (Kelvin) =1.380 658 (12) ´ 10-23 J1.536 189 (13) ´ 10-40 kg
1 eV (electron Volt) =1.602 177 33 (49) ´ 10-19 J1.782 662 70 (54) ´ 10-36 kg
1 u (atomic mass unit) =1.492 419 09 (88) ´ 10-10 J1.660 540 2 (10) ´ 10-27 kg
1 (atomic energy unit) Hartree = 4.359 748 2 (26) ´ 10-18 J4.850 874 1 (29) ´ 10 -35 kg

Energy Equivalence II
Unitsm-1 (wavenumber)Hz (Hertz)
1 J (Joule) = 5.034 112 5 (30) ´ 1024 m-11.509 188 97 (90) ´ 1033 Hz
1 kg (kilogram) =4.524 434 7 (27) ´ 1041 m-11.356 391 40 (81) ´ 1050 Hz
1 m-1 (wavenumber) =1 m-1 (wavenumber)299 792 458 Hz
1 Hz (Hertz) =3.335 640 952 ´ 10-9 m -11 Hz (Hertz)
1 K (Kelvin) =69.503 87 (59) m-12.083 674 (18) ´ 1010 Hz
1 eV (electron Volt) =806 554.10 (24) m-12.417 988 36 (72) ´ 1014 Hz
1 u (atomic mass unit) =7.513 005 63 (67) ´ 1014 m-12.252 342 42 (20) ´ 1023 Hz
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) =21 947 463.067 (26) m-16.579 683 899 9 (78) ´ 1015 Hz

Energy Equivalence III
UnitsK (Kelvin)eV (electron Volt)
1 J (Joule) =7.242 924 (61) ´ 10 22 K6.241 506 4 (19) ´ 1018 eV
1 kg (kilogram) =6.509 616 (55) ´ 1039 K5.609 586 2 (17) ´ 1035 eV
1 m-1 (wavenumber) =0.014 387 69 (12) K1.239 842 44 (37) ´ 10-6 eV
1 Hz (Hertz) =4.799 216 (41) ´ 10-11 K4.135 669 2 (12) ´ 10-15 eV
1 K (Kelvin) =1 K (Kelvin)8.617 385 (73) ´ 10-5 eV
1 eV (electron Volt) =11 604.45 K1 eV (electron Volt)
1 u (atomic mass unit) =1.080 947 8 (91) ´ 1013 K931.494 32 (28) ´ 106 eV
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) =3.157 733 (27) ´ 105 K27.211 396 1 (81) eV

Energy Equivalence IV
Units u (atomic mass unit)Hartree (atomic energy unit)
1 J (Joule) =6.700 530 8 (40) ´ 109 u2.293 710 4 (14) ´ 1017 Hartree
1 kg (kilogram) =6.022 136 7 (36) ´ 1026 u2.061 484 1 (12) ´ 1034 Hartree
1 m-1 (wavenumber) =1.331 025 22 (12) ´ 10-15 u4.556 335 267 2 (54) ´ 10-8 Hartree
1 Hz (Hertz) =4.439 822 24 (40) ´ 10-24 u1.519 829 850 8 (18) ´ 10-16 Hartree
1 K (Kelvin) =9.251 140 (78) ´ 10-14 u3.166 829 (27) ´ 10-6 Hartree
1 eV (electron Volt) =1.073 543 85 (33) ´ 10-9 u0.036 749 309 (11) Hartree
1 u (atomic mass unit) =1 u (atomic mass unit) 3.423 177 25 (31) ´ 107 Hartree
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) =2.921 262 69 (26) ´ 10-8 u1 Hartree (atomic energy unit)

Energy Conversion Factors I
UnitsJ (Joule)kg (kilogram)
1 J (Joule) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 J (Joule) ´ 1 =
1 J (Joule)
1 J (Joule) ´ 1/{c2} =
1.112 650 06 ´ 10-17 kg
1 kg (kilogram) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 kg (kilogram) ´ {c2} =
8.987 551 787 ´ 1016 J
1 kg (kilogram) ´ 1 =
1 kg (kilogram)
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ {hc} =
1.986 447 5 (12) ´ 10-25 J
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ { h/c} =
2.210 220 9 (13) ´ 10-42 kg
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ {h} =
6.626 075 5 (40) ´ 10-34 J
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ {h/c2} =
7.372 503 2 (44) ´ 10-51 kg
1 K (Kelvin) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 K (Kelvin) ´ {k } =
1.380 658 (12) ´ 10-23 J
1 K (Kelvin) ´ {k/c 2} =
1.536 189 (13) ´ 10 -40 kg
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ {e} =
1.602 177 33 (49) ´ 10-19 J
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ {e/c2 } =
1.782 662 70 (54) ´ 10-36 kg
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ {mu/c2} =
1.492 419 09 (88) ´ 10-10 J
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ { mu} =
1.660 540 2 (10) ´ 10-27 kg
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hartree ´ {2R¥hc} =
4.359 748 2 (26) ´ 10-18 J
1 Hartree ´ {2R¥ h/c} =
4.850 874 1 (29) ´ 10-35 kg

Energy Conversion Factors II
Unitsm-1 (wavenumber)Hz (Hertz)
1 J (Joule) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 J (Joule) ´ 1/{hc} =
5.034 112 5 (30) ´ 1024 m-1
1 J (Joule) ´ 1/{h} =
1.509 188 97 (90) ´ 1033 Hz
1 kg (kilogram) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 kg (kilogram) ´ {c/h} =
4.524 434 7 (27) ´ 1041 m-1
1 kg (kilogram) ´ {c2/h} =
1.356 391 40 (81) ´ 1050 Hz
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ 1 =
1 m-1 (wavenumber)
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ {c} =
299 792 458 Hz
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ 1/{c} =
3.335 640 952 ´ 10-9 m-1
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ 1 =
1 Hz (Hertz)
1 K (Kelvin) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 K (Kelvin) ´ {k /hc} =
69.503 87 (59) m-1
1 K (Kelvin) ´ {k/h} =
2.083 674 (18) ´ 1010 Hz
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ {e/hc} =
806 554.10 (24) m-1
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ {e/h} =
2.417 988 36 (72) ´ 1014 Hz
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ {muc/h} =
7.513 005 63 (67) ´ 1014 m-1
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ {muc2/h} =
2.252 342 42 (20) ´ 1023 Hz
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hartree ´ {2R¥} =
21 947 463.067 (26) m-1
1 Hartree ´ {2R¥c} =
6.579 683 899 9 (78) ´ 1015 Hz

Energy Conversion Factors III
UnitsK (Kelvin)eV (electron Volt)
1 J (Joule) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 J (Joule) ´ {1/k} =
7.242 924 (61) ´ 1022 K
1 J (Joule) ´ {1/e} =
6.241 506 4 (19) ´ 1018 eV
1 kg (kilogram) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 kg (kilogram) ´ {c2/k} =
6.509 616 (55) ´ 1039 K
1 kg (kilogram) ´ {c2/e} =
5.609 586 2 (17) ´ 1035 eV
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ {hc/k} =
0.014 387 69 (12) K
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ {hc/e} =
1.239 842 44 (37) ´ 10-6 eV
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ {h/k} =
4.799 216 (41) ´ 10-11 K
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ {h/e} =
4.135 669 2 (12) ´ 10-15 eV
1 K (Kelvin) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 K (Kelvin) ´ 1 =
1 K (Kelvin)
1 K (Kelvin) ´ { k/e} =
8.617 385 (73) ´ 10 -5 eV
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ {e/k} =
11 604.45 K
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ 1 =
1 eV (electron Volt)
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ {mu c2/k} =
1.080 947 8 (91) ´ 1013 K
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ {muc2 /e} =
931.494 32 (28) ´ 10 6 eV
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hartree ´ {2R¥ hc/k} =
3.157 733 (27) ´ 105 K
1 Hartree ´ {2R¥hc/e} =
27.211 396 1 (81) eV

Energy Conversion Factors IV
Unitsu (atomic mass unit)Hartree (atomic energy unit)
1 J (Joule) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 J (Joule) ´ {1/muc2} =
6.700 530 8 (40) ´ 109 u
1 J (Joule) ´ {1/2R¥hc} =
2.293 710 4 (14) ´ 1017 Hartree
1 kg (kilogram) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 kg (kilogram) ´ {1/m u} =
6.022 136 7 (36) ´ 10 26 u
1 kg (kilogram) ´ {c/2R¥h} =
2.061 484 1 (12) ´ 1034 Hartree
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 m -1 (wavenumber) ´ {h/m uc} =
1.331 025 22 (12) ´ 10-15 u
1 m-1 (wavenumber) ´ {1/2R¥ } =
4.556 335 267 2 (54) ´ 10-8 Hartree
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ {h/mu c2} =
4.439 822 24 (40) ´ 10-24 u
1 Hz (Hertz) ´ 1/2R¥c} =
1.519 829 850 8 (18) ´ 10-16 Hartree
1 K (Kelvin) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 K (Kelvin) ´ {k/muc2} =
9.251 140 (78) ´ 10-14 u
1 K (Kelvin) ´ {k/2R¥hc} =
3.166 829 (27) ´ 10-6 Hartree
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ {e/ muc2} =
1.073 543 85 (33) ´ 10-9 u
1 eV (electron Volt) ´ {e/2R¥hc} =
0.036 749 309 (11) Hartree
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ 1 =
1 u (atomic mass unit)
1 u (atomic mass unit) ´ {muc /2R¥h} =
3.423 177 25 (31) ´ 107 Hartree
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) ´ factor =
energy equivalent =
1 Hartree ´ {2R¥h/muc} =
2.921 262 69 (26) ´ 10-8 u
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit) ´ 1 =
1 Hartree (atomic energy unit)

Atomic Units

QuantityNameSymbolValue
mass electron rest massme» 9.109 5 ´ 10-31 kg
chargeelectron chargee » 1.602 2 ´ 10-19 C
actionPlanck constant/2ph = h/2p» 1.054 6 ´ 10-34 J s
lengthBohrao = 4 peoh2/m ee2» 5.291 8 ´ 10-11 m
energyHartreeEh = h2/meao2» 4.359 8 ´ 10-18 m
timeau of timeh/Eh» 2.418 9 ´ 10 -17 s
velocityau of velocity aoEh/h» 2.187 7 ´ 10 6 m s-1
forceau of forceEh/ao» 8.238 9 ´ 10-8 N
momemtum (linear)au of momemtumh/ao» 1.992 9 ´ 10-24 N s
electric currentau of currenteE h/h» 6.623 6 ´ 10-3 A
electric fieldau of electric fieldEh /eao» 5.142 2 ´ 1011 V m-1
electric dipole momentau of electric dipoleeao » 8.478 4 ´ 10-30 C m
magnetic flux density au of magnetic flux density h/eao2 » 2.230 5 ´ 105 T
magnetic dipole moment au of magentic dipole Eh/me = 2mB » 1.854 8 ´ 10-23 J T-1
speed of light (vacuum) c/au of velocity ch/aoEh = a-1 » 137.04

Note : In theoretical calculations units are usually renormalized to h = kB = c = 1.

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